We should gain more by letting ourselves be seen such as we are, than by attempting to appear what we are not.

--Francois de la Rochefoucauld


Process Terms
Bone Diagram

(University of Minnesota)

See Moodle For Calendar  

Click here to view 3-D skull image.

After completing this unit, you should be able to:
  • List the functions of the skeleton
  • Describe the general structure of a bone and list the functions of its parts
  • List and define the major kinds of bones in the human skeleton
  • Name and describe the general types of fractures
  • Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeletons and name the major parts of each
  • Locate and identify the bones and the major features of the bones that comprise the skull, arms, legs, pectoral and pelvic girdles
  • List the major types of joints, describe their characteristics and give an example of each
  • Distinguish between the various types of body movements, giving examples of each
  • Discuss the various diseases and/or conditions associated with the skeletal system
  • State the meanings of the prefixes, suffixes, and root words of this unit

NASA--making artificial bones. Read and Learn!!

This will be the first unit in which we will study diseases and conditions related to a particular unit. In class, we will use the library for a references. If you are absent, you may use the following web site(s).

St. Luke's Health Encyclopedia

AMA reference site


amphiarthoroses epicondyle head sinus
appendicular epiphysis hemopoiesis spine
axial facet lacuna suture
canaliculi fissure meatus synarthroses
condyle foramen ossicles synovial
crest fossa osteocyte trochanter
diaphysis fovea periosteum tubercle
diarthroses Haversian canal process tuberosity

DIAGRAMS--click on the diagram, copy image and paste into a word processing program. Label the pictures and identify the types of fractures.


Use the following whole bones to label the diagram.

  • calcaneus
  • carpals
  • cervical vertebra
  • clavicle
  • coccyx
  • costal cartilage
  • false ribs
  • femur
  • fibula
  • floating ribs
  • frontal
  • humerous
  • illium
  • ischium
  • lumbar vertebra
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • metacarpals
  • metatarsals
  • nasal
  • occipital
  • parietal
  • patella
  • phalanges
  • pubis
  • radius
  • sacrum
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • tarsals
  • temporal
  • thoracic vertebra
  • tibia
  • true ribs
  • ulna
  • zygomatic

LABS--After studying the "real" bones, you should be able to label the parts of each of these.


Skull Tutorial
Bone Photos from Penn State

Bone Tutorial

Skull Tutorial #2

Skull Quiz Tutorial

Click on the web address above and work through the tutorials on the various views of the skull. You may have to substitute some of the names we used in class for the ones on the diagram. Be sure to click on the part of the skull that you wish to identify. In addition, you may take a tour of the body and study the bones on VIRTUAL BODY.

Drag the bones and joints into their proper place on this BBC website.

STUDY TIPS--Use the one(s) that best suit your learning style

  • Be sure to read the chapter and all of its parts-- chapter outline, objectives, test ect. These are important sincewe do not go over the chapter piece by piece.
  • Be sure that all of your diagrams are correct. Get the answers in class or from someone else BUT THEY MUST BE CORRECT. Studying the wrong answers will not be helpful.
  • Study each evening. Go over what you didn't know the day before and continue where you left off. There are a lot of quizzes in this unit. KEEP UP.
  • Don't be discouraged by one bad quiz score. They will all add up in the end.
  • It may seem dumb, but color the diagrams and continue to make your flash cards. YOU WILL SEE A DIFFERENCE!

Skeletal Test Study Guide
The following are suggestions for studying the 200 point skeletal test. Try to do all of the suggestions. If you get to something you cannot do, please bring your questions to class and ask the teacher.
1-35. Whole Bones on a Skeleton
  • Copy and paste the skeleton above into a word processing program. Name the parts without going to the answer page.
  • Name the bones of the skeletal on your green packet. Get the answers from the teacher table.
36-44. Diagram of a Bone

Sketch a bone showing the internal anatomy. Label:

  • articular cartilage
  • compact bone
  • diaphysis
  • epiphysis
  • medullary canal
  • periosteum
  • red marrow
  • spongy bone
  • yellow marrow

Then take the bone quiz at the top of this page.

45-53. Fractures Review the various fractures on the class note page. Then do the fracture quiz found on the top of this page. Give the teacher your score if so directed.
54-92. Skeletal Notes--Part 1 Go over all of the questions on the class note page. Which of these do you believe will be on the test? Check with the teacher if you can't determine the answers.
93-102. Structural terms Look at the list of structural terms and then review using your crossword. Then do the process term quiz found on the top of this page. Give the teacher your score if so directed.
103-118. Bones and their Part

Match the following parts with the bones on which you find them. Use your Skeletal Lab for best results.

  • xiphoid process
  • infraorbital foramen
  • acromion process
  • glenoid fossa
  • crista galli
  • mandibular fossa
  • obturator foramen
  • mastoid process
  • greater/lesser tubercle
  • ramus (rami)
  • cribiform plate
  • olecranon process
  • patellar surface

  • glabella
  • external protuberance
  • supraorbital foramen
  • greater/lesser trochanter
  • coracoid process
  • medial malleolus
  • mental foramen
  • intertubercular groove
  • olecranon fossa
  • optic foramen
  • palatine process
  • external acoustic meatus
  • foramen magnum
  • lateral malleolus
  • manubrium
119-138. Joints and Body Movements Review the charts and labs. Make a list of terms and be sure you know what they mean and look like.
139-150. Diseases Look at your disease list. What method can you devise to learn the basics about these diseases and/ or conditions?
35 pts. Short answer questions

Questions will include:

  • Importances of cartilage
  • Arthroscopy
  • Differences in male/female skeletons
  • Skeletal development--differences in adult/baby skeletons
  • Prefixes, suffixes and root words



  1. What technique did you use to learn the bones for the samller quizzes? Were you successful? Explain
  2. What were you specifically doing AT HOME for your 20 minutes of anatomy on the nights that you were learning bones in class?
  3. Compare the study guide and your test. In what ways did you use the study guide? How was it useful to you?
  4. How difficult was this test if you studied a little at a time, and if you completed and studied the study guide?
  5. Why do you believe you were successul or not successful?
  6. If you prepare properly, in what ways will this help you as a student today and in your future?

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